Manufacturing processes generate a wide range of organic compounds that must be treated in wastewater. Pharmaceutical effluent streams contain active pharmaceutical compounds that are often incinerated, and pharmaceutical process water can have microbial organisms that must be deactivated or destroyed.
Likewise, manufacturing of chemicals, petrochemicals, oil and gas production, consumer products, electronics, and food and beverage all generate wastewater streams with organic compounds that must be treated by oxidation.
Process cooling is one the largest uses of energy in manufacturing plants. Cooling is provided by circulating water through heat exchangers, cooling towers and chillers.
Evaporating water is an excellent way to remove large amounts of heat from industrial processes, but evaporation concentrates the water progressively. Minerals in the water crystallize on heat exchanger and chiller surfaces, building layers of “scale” that dramatically reduce energy efficiency. Chemical water treatment is essential but cannot keep heat transfer surfaces completely clean.
Process cooling water is essential to a majority of manufacturing processes but is often overlooked as an energy-saving opportunity.